Analysis of beta-casein gene (CSN2) polymorphism in different breeds of cattle

Martina Miluchová, Michal Gábor, Anna Trakovická


The goal of work was identification of b - casein gene polymorphism in different breeds of cow. The beta - casein constitutes up to 45 % of the casein of bovine milk. The most common forms of beta-casein in dairy cattle breeds are A1 and A2, while B is less common. The b-casein A1 variant was associated with the incidence of diabetes mellitus 1st type, coronary heart disease and autism. The A2 variant reduces serum cholesterol. The material involved 287 cows (Simmental breed – 111 cows, Pinzgau breed – 89 cows, Holstein breed – 87 cows). Bovine genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood by using commercial kit and used in order to estimate b - casein genotypes by means of PCR-RFLP method. In the populations included in the study were detected all three genotypes – homozygote genotype A1A1, heterozygote genotype A1A2 and homozygote genotype A2A2 with frequencies 0.1261, 0.3333 and 0.5405 in Simmental breed; 0.1379, 0.4598 and 0.4023 in Holstein breed, 0.3034, 0.5168 and 0.1798 in Pinzgau breed. In population of Simmental breed and Holstein breed was higher frequency of allele A2 (0.7072 and 0.6322). In opposite, in population of Pinzgau breed was present higher frequency of the allele A1 (0.5618).


beta-casein, cattle, PCR-RFLP

Full Text:



Bagnicka, E., Strzałkowska, N., Jóźwik, A., Krzyżewski, J., Horbańczuk, J.O., and Zwierzchowski, L., Defensins in farm animals, their expression and polymorphism, Acta Biochim. Pol., 2010, 57, 487-497

Gálik, B., Šimko, M., Juráček, M., Bíro, D., Horniaková. E., Rolinec, M., Pastierik, O., Kolesárová, A., Maiorano, G., Gambacorta, M., Tavaniello, S., and Bednarczyk, M., Biotechnology and animal food quality, SPU, Nitra, 2011, 130 p. ISBN 978-80-552-0708-7

Szwajkowska, M., Wolanciuk, A., Barłowska, J., Król, J., and Litwińczuk, Z., Bovine milk proteins as the source of bioactive peptides influencing the consumers’ immune system, Anim. Sci. Pap. Rep., 2011, 29, 269-280

Ferretti, L., Leone, P., and Sgaramella, U., Long range restriction analysis of the bovine casein gene, Nuc. Acids. Res., 1990, 18, 6829-6833

Ribadeau-Dumas, B., Brignon, G., Grosclaude, F., and Mercier, J.C., Structure primaire de la caséine  bovine. Sequénce complete, Eur. J. Biochem., 1972, 25, 505-514

Farrell, H.M. Jr., Jimenez-Florez, R., Bleck, G.T., Brown, E.M., Butler, J.E., Creamer, L.K., Hicks, C.L., Hollar, C.M., Ng-Kwai-Hang, K.F., and Swaisgood, H.E., Nomenclature of the pro¬teins of cows’ milk – sixth revision, J. Dairy Sci., 2004, 87, 1641–1674

Kamiński, S., Cieślińska, A., and Kostyra, E., Polymorphism of bovine beta-casein and its potentialeffect on human health, J. Appl. Genet., 2007, 48,189–198

Keating, A.F., Smith, T.J., Ross, R.P., and Cairns, M.T., A note on the evaluation of a beta-casein variant in bovine breeds by allele-specific PCR and relevance to β-casomorphin, Irish J. Agr. Food Res., 2008, 47, 99–104

Ng-Kwai-Hang, K.F., and Grosclaude, F., Genetic polymorphism of milk proteins, In: Fox PFaM, P.L.H editor. Advanced Dairy Chemistry: Volume 1: Proteins Parts A&B. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 2002, pp. 739-816

Stewart, A.F., Bonsing, J., Beattie, C.W., Shah, F., Willis, I.M., and Mackinley, A.G., Complete nucleotide sequences of bovine αs2- and β-casein cDNAs: comparison with related sequences in other species, Mol. Biol. Evol., 1987, 4, 231–241

Damiani, G., Pilla, F., Leone, P., and Caccio, S., Direct sequencing and bidirectional allele specific polymerase chain reaction of the bovine β-casein B variant, Anim. Genet., 1992, 23, 561–566

Lien, S., Alestrom, P., Klungland, H., and Rogne, S. Detection of multiple β-casein alleles by amplification created restriction sites (ACRS), Anim. Genet., 1992, 23, 333–338

Haq, M. R., Kapila, R., Shandilya, U. K., and Kapila, S. Impact of milk derived ß -casomorphins on physiological functions and trends in research: A Review, Internat. J. Food Prop., 2014, doi: 10.1080/10942912.2012.712077

Lonnerdal, B., Bergstrom, S., Andersson, Y., Hjalmarsson, K., Sundqvist, A.K., Hernell, O., Cloning and sequencing of a cDNA encoding human milk beta-casein, FEBS Lett., 1990, 269,153-6

Provot, C., Persuy, M.A., and Mercier, J.C., Complete nucleotide sequence of ovine beta-casein cDNA: inter-species comparison, Biochimie, 1989,71, 827-32

Elliott, R.B., Reddy, S.N., Bibby, N.J., and Kida, K., Dietary prevention of diabetes in the non-obese diabetic mouse, Diabetologia, 1988, 31, 62–64.

Panicke, L., Freyer, G., Erhardt, G., Effects of milk protein genotypes on milk production traits, 48th Annual Meeting of the European Association for Animal Produktion am 25.-28.08.1997 in Vienna/Austria, 1997

McLachlan, C.N., Breeding and milking cows for milk free of β-casein A1, United States Patent 7094949, 2006

Brody, R.J., and Kern, S.E., Sodium boric acid: a Tris-free, cooler conductive medium for DNA electrophoresis, Biotechnique, 2004, 36, 214-216

Beja-Pereira, A., Luikart, G., England, P.R., Bradley, D.G., Jann, O.C., Bertorelle, G., Chamberlain, A.T., Nunes, T.P., Metodiev, S., Ferrand, N., and Erhardt, G., Gene-culture coevolution between cattle milk protein genes and human lactase genes, Nat. Genet., 2003, 35, 311 – 313

Caroli, A., Chessa, S., Chiatti, F., Rignanese, D., Meléndez, B., Rizzi, R., and Ceriotti, G., Short communication: Carora cattle show high variability in alpha(s1)-casein, J. Dairy Sci., 2008, 91, 354-9

Manga, I., Říha, J., and Dvořák, J., Comparison of influence markers CSN3 and CSN2 on milk performance traits in czech spotted and holstein cattle tested at first, fifth and higher lactation, Acta fytotech. et zootech., 2006, 9, 13-15

Bech, A.M., and Kristiansen, K.R., Milk protein polymorphism in Danish dairy cattle and the influence of genetic variants on milk yield, J. Dairy Res., 1990, 57, 53–62.

Ehrmann, S., Bartenschlager, H., and Geldermann, H., Quantification of gene effects on single milk proteins in selected groups of dairy cows, J. Anim. Breed.Genet., 1997, 114, 121–132.

Ikonen, T., Ojala, M., and Ruottinen, O., Effects of beta and kappa-casein genotypes on first lactation milk production traits in Finnish Ayrshire cows. Milk protein polymorphism, Int Dairy Fed., 1997, 47–53

Hanusová, E., Huba, J., Oravcová, M., Polák, P., and Vrtková, I., Genetic variants of beta-casein in Holstein Dairy Cattle in Slovakia, Slovak. J. Anim. Sci., 2010, 43, 63 – 66


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c)

Scientific Papers Animal Science and Biotechnologies publish open access articles under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Licence (read full legal code).


ISSN print 1841 - 9364
ISSN online 2344 - 4576
ISSN-L  1841 - 9364
(former ISSN 1221-5287, E-ISSN 1841-9364)

PAPER ACCESS: Full text articles available for free
FREQUENCY: Semiannual

Banat´s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine "King Michael I of Romania" from Timisoara
Bioengineering Faculty of Animal Resources
300645, Timişoara, Calea Aradului 119, Romania

E-mail: spasb [at]
Phone: +40-256-277160, Fax.: +40-256-277110